Nitrates as a Treatment of Acute Heart Failure

Acute heart failure (AHF) presents symptoms primarily the result of pulmonary congestion due to elevated left ventricular (LV) filling pressures with or without reduced ejection fraction (EF). Common precipitating pathology includes coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertension and valvular heart diseases, in addition to other noncardiac conditions, such as diabetes, anaemia and kidney dysfunction.1,2 Additionally, AHF poses major medical and socioeconomic burdens.

Current Understanding of the Compensatory Actions of Cardiac Natriuretic Peptides in Cardiac Failure: A Clinical Perspective

Today, natriuretic peptides are ubiquitously utilized for the diagnosis, treatment, and prognostication of heart failure in the Emergency Department, as well as inpatient and outpatient settings alike.1–5 These endogenous hormones counteract some of the most detrimental effects of heart failure.

Upstream Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation with n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Myth or Reality?

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia in adults and confers increased risk of death,1 thromboembolism and impaired quality of life.2 Current pharmacological antiarrhythmic drugs provide limited protection against AF recurrence and have poor safety profiles, while invasive ablation treatments are associated with significant risks and limited long-term success rates.

The Role of MicroRNAs in Antiarrhythmic Therapy for Atrial Fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia experienced in clinical practice, and is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality.1 It affects more than 6 million people in Europe.1 The lifetime risk of developing AF after the age of 40 is approximately 25 %.1 AF is a major public health burden as it is associated with an increased risk of stroke by fivefold, dementia by twofold, heart failure by threefold and mortality by twofold.1,2

Focused Ultrasound in the Emergency Department for Patients with Acute Heart Failure

The emergency department (ED) plays a critical role in the initial diagnosis and management of acute heart failure (AHF),1,2 as nearly 80 % of all AHF admissions originate from the ER.3 However, patients do not present with a diagnosis; rather they present with a chief complaint reflecting signs and symptoms – most commonly breathlessness. Differentiating AHF from other causes of breathlessness can be challenging, especially in patients with multiple co-morbid conditions such as chronic heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Biomarkers in Acute Heart Failure – Cardiac And Kidney

Ideally biomarkers provide the clinician with assistance in one or more of: (i) diagnosis, (ii) prognosis, (iii) choice and titration of therapy, (iv) monitoring progression of disease and (v) assessing response to treatment. The best-established biomarkers in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) are the B-type natriuretic peptides (brain natriuretic peptide [BNP] and N-terminal of the prohormone brain natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]).