Cardiac Rehabilitation In Heart Failure

Management of Refractory Angina Pectoris

Refractory angina (RA) is conventionally defined as a chronic condition (≥3 months in duration) characterised by angina in the setting of coronary artery disease (CAD), which cannot be controlled by a combination of optimal medical therapy, angioplasty or bypass surgery, and where reversible myocardial ischaemia has been clinically established to be the cause of the symptoms.1

Cardiac Rehabilitation in Patients with Heart Failure – New Perspectives in Exercise Training

The US Public Health Service defines cardiac rehabilitation services as “comprehensive, long term programs involving medical evaluation, prescribed exercise, cardiac risk factor modification, education and counselling. These programs are designed to limit the physiological and psychological effect of cardiac illness, reduce the risk of sudden death or re-infarction, control cardiac symptoms, stabilise or reverse the atherosclerotic process and enhance the psychological and vocational status of the individual patient.”1

Exercise Capacity in Chronic Heart Failure

Heart failure (HF) affects more than 5 million people, representing 2 % of the population.1,2 At 40 years of age, the lifetime risk of developing HF, regardless of gender, is one in five, with an incidence of 10 per 1,000 population after the age of 65 years.1,3 Despite efforts focused toward primary prevention of HF in the areas of hypertension (HTN), diabetes, obesity, use of cardiotoxic chemotherapies, and ischemic coronary artery disease (CAD), there continues to be an increasing incidence.

The Role of Cardiac Rehabilitation in Achieving Optimal Treatment

As far as I know, the designation ‘optimal medical treatment’ was first used by the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation (COURAGE) trial1 investigators as a synonym for the state-of-the-art measures encompassing drug regime, diet and physical activity recommended by the US guidelines for stable angina and acute coronary syndrome (ACS).