Other Causes of Hypertrophy

ICD Therapy for Primary Prevention in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), a genetic sarcomeric disorder associated with myocyte disarray and scar deposition, is intimately linked to sudden cardiac death (SCD) due to malignant ventricular arrhythmias. In the first modern published description of the disease in 1958, Dr Donald Teare describes the case of a 14-year-old male who collapsed while being chased around his school’s playground.1 He was reported to have been having ‘blackout episodes’ for months.

Bridging the Knowledge Gaps in Arrhythmogenic Cardiovascular Conditions: The Critical Role of Registries

One of the fundamental principles of evidence-based medicine is that clinical care should be based on data derived from appropriately designed trials, registries, and observational data from patients. The best available evidence is then used to develop guidelines for clinical care, assess quality, measure performance, and improve patient outcomes. The highest level of evidence in clinical medicine, also known as Level of Evidence A, is derived from multiple prospective randomized clinical trials (RCTs) or from meta-analysis.

Left Ventricular Remodelling: A Problem in Search of Solutions

The term cardiac remodelling (REM) is used to define changes that produce geometrical rearrangement of the normal structures of the heart, together with complex biological and molecular alterations. REM affects the heart at the level of the cardiomyocyte, the blood vessels and the extracellular matrix. Proliferation of the latter, resulting in fibrosis, is one of the hallmarks of pathological REM.1,2 REM represents a major cause of heart failure as well as cardiac morbidity and mortality.

Decompensated Heart Failure in Pregnancy

‘Heart failure’ is a term that may be loosely or precisely defined. The development of pulmonary oedema does not necessarily indicate a cardiac cause and of the cardiac causes for pulmonary oedema, not all can be attributed to left ventricular failure.1 The majority of women developing symptoms and signs of heart failure during pregnancy have no known pre-existing cardiomyopathy. This article describes the cardiac causes of pulmonary oedema presenting in pregnancy with reference to other differential diagnoses.

Risk Stratification in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a hereditary primary myocardial disease that is most commonly caused by mutations within genes encoding sarcomeric contractile proteins and is characterised by left ventricular hypertrophy in the absence of a cardiac or systemic cause.1,2 The condition is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and has a prevalence of one in 500.3,4 Marked genetic heterogeneity, diverse clinical phenotypes and a highly variable natural history are well recognised.