Congenital Heart Disease

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Postpartum Cardiomyopathy and Considerations for Breastfeeding

Postpartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a diagnosis of exclusion, where patients present with heart failure secondary to left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction towards the end of pregnancy or in the months following delivery, with no other cause of heart failure identified.1 PPCM is relatively uncommon, affecting between one in 5,000 and one in 10,000 births;2 it is thought to be more prevalent in women aged over 30 years, of black ethnicity, with a history of pre-eclampsia or preg

Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients with Congenital Heart Disease

Although there is no formal database of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) in the United States, the prevalence and incidence of CHD can be estimated and extrapolated from data in the Canadian providence.1 As such, the prevalence of CHD in the United States has been estimated in 2010 to be around 2.4 million people (1.4 million adults and 1 million children), with an incidence of between four and 10 per 1,000.

Update on the Management of Patent Foramen Ovale in 2017: Indication for Closure and Literature Review

The foramen ovale is an important fetal structure that is integral to fetal circulation. During fetal development days 30–37, intra-atrial endothelial cells proliferate to form the septum primum and the ostium primum. The overlap between the these structures forms the inter-atrial passage known as the foramen ovale,1,2 which allows the fetal lungs to be bypassed by facilitating fetal blood movement from the right to the left atrium.