Atrial Septal Defect

The Impact of an Atrial Septal Defect on Hemodynamics in Patients With Heart Failure

Pulmonary venous hypertension and congestion that occurs with left ventricular (LV) failure is generally not seen in the presence of a large atrial septal defect (ASD). As long as right ventricular (RV) function and distensibility are not impaired, the ASD provides an alternate pathway for atrial emptying, thus preventing or attenuating elevated LV filling pressures.

The Changing Paradigm in the Treatment of Structural Heart Disease and the Need for the Interventional Imaging Specialist

Over the past 30 years, several percutaneous transcatheter technologies and devices for interventions in structural heart diseases (SHDs) have been introduced (see Table 1). There are numerous technologies that are in development or are currently being used to treat patients with SHD that use transcatheter techniques. The variety of percutaneous treatment approaches has led to a revolution and evolution in clinical care. The past few years have seen a greater application of novel, catheter-based treatments for SHDs.

Pacing and Defibrillators in Complex Congenital Heart Disease

Device therapy is increasingly employed in the management of complex congenital heart disease (CHD). Bradycardias, most often related to sinus nodal dysfunction (SND) or atrioventricular nodal (AVN) block, may necessitate the implantation of pacing devices, while malignant arrhythmias may be treated by appropriate use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). However, there is a complex interplay between these classical device indications and associated supraventricular tachyarrhythmias, failure of ventricular function and ventricular dyssynchrony.

Hybrid Imaging in the Catheter Laboratory: Real-time Fusion of Echocardiography and Fluoroscopy During Percutaneous Structural Heart Disease Interventions

Percutaneous catheter-based structural heart disease procedures are a rapidly growing area of interventional cardiology, and represent a valuable option for cardiac patients with comorbidities who are ineligible for conventional surgery as well as demonstrating excellent outcomes.1,2 Catheter-based interventions include transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI),3 percutaneous mitral valve (MV) repair,4 atrial septal defect (ASD) closure, percutaneous closure of paravalvular leakages (PVL)5 and left atrial appendage (LAA) clo