Ventricular Septal Defect

Bosentan in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Associated with Congenital Heart Disease (Congenital Cardiac Shunts)

Congenital heart diseases (CHDs) are among the most common congenital malformations at birth, with an incidence of 8/1,000 live births. These defects are characterised by a heterogeneous group of abnormal communications and connections between the cardiac chambers and vessels with different haemodynamic consequences and, hence, varying need for follow-up and interventions. The most common forms are congenital cardiac shunts (i.e.

Arrhythmia in Congenital Heart Disease

Before the advent of surgery only 20% of children with congenital heart disease survived to adult life.1 Great achievements in paediatric cardiology and cardiac surgery over the last few decades resulted in an increased survival of children with congenital heart disease (CHD). Today we are facing the first generation of grown-up congenital heart disease (GUCH) patients and the management of their clinical problems represents a new complicated task for paediatricians, cardiologists, cardiac surgeons and electrophysiologists.

Cardiac Computed Tomographic Angiography - A Diagnostic Revolution

Since 1999, cardiac computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) has evolved into the most innovative approach to cardiac imaging to emerge in over 30 years. The adoption and application of this remarkable technology represents a true revolution in the evaluation of patients for cardiac problems. The evaluation of patients with potential cardiac problems traditionally uses a variety of non-invasive or invasive procedures. Non-invasive procedures include treadmill or pharmacologic stress testing with or without perfusion imaging with a radioactive isotope.

Essentials in the Post-operative Evaluation of Congenital Heart Disease

The last 60 years have seen significant changes in the care of congenital heart disease for both pediatric and adult patients. Increasing patient survival rates have widened the number and scope of potential patients seen by congenital cardiologists.1 These patients often undergo multiple surgeries, particularly since few lesions are truly ‘repaired.’ The majority of patients will have residua or sequelae of surgery, requiring long-term follow-up or further operations.