Antianginal Drugs

The Role of Ivabradine and Trimetazidine in the New ESC HF Guidelines

Chronic heart failure (HF), a complex and heterogeneous clinical syndrome, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and represents a major challenge to health care systems. The prevalence of HF and the number of hospitalisations is rising, even more in the ageing population.1 The direct costs of HF management reached 1–2 % of total health care expenditure and approximately two-thirds are attributable to hospitalisations.