Chronic Stable Angina In Women

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Ischemic Complications of Pregnancy: Who is at Risk?

Pregnancy is a physiologic challenge, with significant hormonal, metabolic, and hemodynamic changes. Cardiac output is objectively increased by the fifth week after the last menstrual period and continues to grow by approximately 45 % by 24 weeks in the normal, singleton pregnancy. This is facilitated by elevations in heart rate and stroke volume and a decrease in systemic vascular resistance.