Treatment

Nicorandil and Long-acting Nitrates: Vasodilator Therapies for the Management of Chronic Stable Angina Pectoris

Stable angina pectoris is the most prevalent clinical manifestation of coronary heart disease. While the overall prognosis in patients with stable angina is good, with a low yearly event rate of ~1–2 %,1 for many, adequate symptom control can be difficult to achieve, leading to significantly impaired quality of life.

Prediction of Post Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Myocardial Ischaemia

Myocardial revascularisation in patients with stable chronic angina is performed with the aim of reducing cardiovascular death, reducing myocardial infarction (MI) and relieving angina symptoms. However, contrary to expectations, modern therapy with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has not had a significant impact on hard outcomes.1–5 Indeed, as also summarised in a recently published meta-analysis,6 PCI in stable angina patients does not reduce cardiovascular death or MI.

Fractional Flow Reserve Assessment of Coronary Artery Stenosis

Coronary artery disease (CAD) due to atherosclerosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Early prevention of atherothrombotic disease with a healthy lifestyle (diet, exercise, optimal body weight and no smoking) is considered the best method of “treating” CAD, although increasing age remains associated with significant cardiovascular events.

The Role of Ivabradine and Trimetazidine in the New ESC HF Guidelines

Chronic heart failure (HF), a complex and heterogeneous clinical syndrome, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and represents a major challenge to health care systems. The prevalence of HF and the number of hospitalisations is rising, even more in the ageing population.1 The direct costs of HF management reached 1–2 % of total health care expenditure and approximately two-thirds are attributable to hospitalisations.

Ischemic Complications of Pregnancy: Who is at Risk?

Pregnancy is a physiologic challenge, with significant hormonal, metabolic, and hemodynamic changes. Cardiac output is objectively increased by the fifth week after the last menstrual period and continues to grow by approximately 45 % by 24 weeks in the normal, singleton pregnancy. This is facilitated by elevations in heart rate and stroke volume and a decrease in systemic vascular resistance.