Stable CAD/Angina

Culprit Vessel Only Versus Complete Revascularisation in Patients with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction – Should we Stay or Stage?

For ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), there is currently no doubt that primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) of the infarct related artery (IRA) is the preferred reperfusion strategy.1 In about 50 % of cases, STEMI is associated with multivessel coronary artery disease (MVCAD), defined as a ≥50 % stenosis in at least one non-infarct related epicardial coronary artery (N-IRA, Figure 1).2,3 Like many other facto

Key Recent Advances in Atherosclerosis Treatment with Modern Lipid-lowering Drugs: The New Frontier with PCSK9 Inhibitors

Hypercholesterolemia has been known for several years to be a major risk factor in the development of atherosclerosis and consecutively cardiovascular disease. This epidemiological concept has been widely confirmed using different strategies that have reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels and cardiovascular events (morbidity and mortality) in primary as well as in secondary prevention, in different groups of patients.

Women with Stable Angina Pectoris and No Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease: Closer to a Diagnosis

Women have for many years been regarded as being at relatively low risk for the development of ischaemic heart disease (IHD).1,2 Recently this pattern has changed and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the leading cause of death for women in Europe.3,4 Under the age of 60 years acute coronary syndrome occurs 3–4 times more often in men; however, after the age of 75 years women represent the majority of the patients.

Cardiovascular Disease in Women: Understanding Symptoms and Risk Factors

Globally, cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of mortality in women. Approximately 2.8 million women have been diagnosed with CVD in the UK.1 For many years, the presence of gender-related differences in presentation, risk factors and outcomes have been recognised. Importantly, these discrepancies in presentation and outcomes between the sexes are often associated with inequalities in the detection, referral and management of CVD.

Management of Refractory Angina Pectoris

Refractory angina (RA) is conventionally defined as a chronic condition (≥3 months in duration) characterised by angina in the setting of coronary artery disease (CAD), which cannot be controlled by a combination of optimal medical therapy, angioplasty or bypass surgery, and where reversible myocardial ischaemia has been clinically established to be the cause of the symptoms.1