Anti Anginal Therapy

Management of Refractory Angina Pectoris

Refractory angina (RA) is conventionally defined as a chronic condition (≥3 months in duration) characterised by angina in the setting of coronary artery disease (CAD), which cannot be controlled by a combination of optimal medical therapy, angioplasty or bypass surgery, and where reversible myocardial ischaemia has been clinically established to be the cause of the symptoms.1

The Role of Ivabradine and Trimetazidine in the New ESC HF Guidelines

Chronic heart failure (HF), a complex and heterogeneous clinical syndrome, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and represents a major challenge to health care systems. The prevalence of HF and the number of hospitalisations is rising, even more in the ageing population.1 The direct costs of HF management reached 1–2 % of total health care expenditure and approximately two-thirds are attributable to hospitalisations.

Cardioprotected Percutaneous Coronary Intervention - A Case Study in a Stable Angina Patient

Fast and effective opening of epicardial arteries by thrombolysis or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to restore perfusion to the jeopardised myocardium is considered the cornerstone in the treatment of patients with an acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) leading to a reduction in morbidity and mortality.1 However, despite successful opening of the coronary artery, myocardial reperfusion remains suboptimal (i.e.