Preventative Therapy

Management of Refractory Angina Pectoris

Refractory angina (RA) is conventionally defined as a chronic condition (≥3 months in duration) characterised by angina in the setting of coronary artery disease (CAD), which cannot be controlled by a combination of optimal medical therapy, angioplasty or bypass surgery, and where reversible myocardial ischaemia has been clinically established to be the cause of the symptoms.1