Atrial Flutter

Atrial Arrhythmias in Pulmonary Hypertension: Pathogenesis, Prognosis and Management

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a chronic condition that is characterised by elevated pulmonary vascular pressures and can be caused by several disease processes (see Table 1).1 Regardless of the aetiology, PH is a progressive disease with a clinical course characterised by frequent decompensations in advanced stages and often a poor prognosis despite the development of novel therapeutic agents.2 AF and atrial flutter are common in PH popul

Atrial Flutter, Typical and Atypical: A Review

The term ‘flutter’ was coined to designate the visual and tactile rapid, regular atrial contraction induced by faradic stimulation in animal hearts, in contrast with irregular, vermiform contraction in atrial fibrillation (AF).1,2 On the ECG, flutter was a regular continuous undulation between QRS complexes at a cycle length (CL) of ≤250 ms (≥240 bpm). Slower tachycardias displaying discrete P waves, separated by isoelectric baselines, were called ‘atrial tachycardia’.

The Role of Cardiac MRI in the Diagnosis and Risk Stratification of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the most common genetic cardiomyopathy, is present in one in 500 of the general population and is caused by over 1,400 mutations in at least 11 genes encoding the cardiac sarcomere.1–4 Although the majority of patients with HCM remain asymptomatic with near-normal longevity, a small, but important, subset of patients are at increased risk for a wide range of clinical outcomes including development of advanced heart failure symptoms, atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, thromboembolic events, and even sudden death.5–8