Atrial Tachycardia

Arrhythmia Mechanisms Revealed by Ripple Mapping

The introduction of cardiac electroanatomic mapping systems in the mid-1990s has permitted investigators to record intracardiac electrograms (EGMs) with accurate spatial localisation in 3D.1 These 3D mapping systems have enabled the display of the cardiac chambers as an anatomical shell upon which voltage, or activation, information can be displayed. Most commonly, colour is used to represent the variation of a single parameter that has been derived from the EGM at each sampled location.

Atrial Fibrillation Therapies - Rate or Rhythm Control?

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a rhythm disturbance of the atria that results in irregular, chaotic, ventricular waveforms, varying from bradyarrhythmia to tachyarrhythmia. Essentially, all forms of AF therapy can be divided into two categories - restoration and maintenance of normal sinus rhythm, or control of the ventricular rate while permitting on-going fibrillation of the atria.

Cardiac Arrhythmias in the Pregnant Woman and the Foetus

Neither supraventricular nor ventricular tachyarrhythmias are uncommon during pregnancy.1,2 When they are diagnosed, patients, relatives and physicians are frequently worried about ectopic beats and sustained arrhythmias.3,4 One should question whether arrhythmias should be treated in the same way as they would be outside pregnancy because all commonly used antiarrhythmic drugs cross the placenta.5 The pharmacokinetics of drugs are altered in pregnancy and blood levels need to be checked to ensure maximum efficacy and avoid toxicity.