Advanced Imaging

A Review of Image-guided Approaches for Cardiac Resynchronisation Therapy

Cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) is a widely-performed standard treatment for improving cardiac function and quality of life in patients with heart failure.1 After CRT, however, 30–40 % of patients do not experience improvements in left ventricular (LV) function and clinical symptoms.2–3 The key factors for increasing the response rate to CRT are identification of the optimal LV lead position and accurate lead placement at the optimal site.4–7

The Role of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Heart Failure

Heart failure (HF) can be defined haemodynamically as any abnormality of cardiac structure or function resulting in a failure to deliver oxygen at a rate adequate for tissue requirements, despite normal filling pressures – or only at the expense of increased filling pressures.1 Around half of patients with HF have reduced left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF; EF <40 %) at rest (HF-REF).2

Novel Imaging Techniques for Heart Failure

Heart failure (HF) is an epidemic with an increasing prevalence and an absolute mortality rate of approximately 50 % within 5 years of diagnosis. Imaging plays a main role in HF diagnosis, assessment of aetiology and treatment guidance. This article reviews current HF applications for all the available non-invasive imaging modalities: echocardiography, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), nuclear imaging-positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and computed tomography (CT).