Atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) are global epidemics that began more than a century ago, and their association with an ageing general population has brought about an increase in cardiovascular morbidity and rising healthcare costs.1,2 More than 50 % of patients with permanent AF have a concurrent diagnosis of HF and this proportion is expected to rise.3 It is well established that the detrimental impact of AF in patients with HF results in a greater number of hospital admissions, longer hospital stays and an overall increase in mortali
Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) have been used for over 30 years to prevent sudden cardiac death (SCD). The first indications for ICD placement were secondary prevention; later trials demonstrated a primary prevention benefit of ICD therapy in patients at risk of SCD. ICD therapy prolongs life in both patient populations.1 However, the efficacy of an ICD depends on its ability to correctly detect ventricular arrhythmia and deliver antitachycardia pacing or shocks.
A growing appreciation of the prevalence of sleep breathing disorders, especially as comorbidities of disease syndromes such as chronic heart failure, has increased interest in screening, diagnosis, and treatment of obstructive and central sleep apnea. Sleep apnea diagnosis currently requires an overnight polysomnograhic evaluation in which the disease is defined as the number of times per hour that respiration is inadequate to maintain oxygen saturation.