Epidemiology and Causes

A Review of Plant-based Diets to Prevent and Treat Heart Failure

Heart failure (HF) is a major cause of hospitalisation, morbidity and mortality. Nutritional factors are major contributors to HF precursors, including hypertension, obesity, dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance/diabetes and systemic inflammation. Multiple landmark trials, including Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)1 and Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED),2 have documented the profound effect of nutrition on cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence/severity.

Identification and Treatment of Central Sleep Apnoea: Beyond SERVE-HF

Central sleep apnoea (CSA) occurs in approximately one-third of patients with HF and is associated with a significant increase in morbidity and mortality compared to HF patients without CSA.1–3 CSA results in intermittent hypoxia and activation of the renin–angiotensin system, which contributes to worsening HF.4 Symptoms such as fatigue and difficulty concentrating often overlap with the effects of chronic HF. Treatment options are limited.

Optimising Heart Failure Therapies in the Acute Setting

Heart failure is a clinical syndrome induced by cardiac abnormalities resulting in reduced cardiac output and/or elevated intra-cardiac end-diastolic pressures and causing symptoms that are often accompanied by typical physical signs.1 Demographic changes, improved treatment of several acute cardiac disorders, such myocardial infarction, arrhythmia and congenital heart disease, and increased long-term survival of patients with reduced left ventricular systolic function have led to a dramatic increase in the number of patients

The Role of Automated 3D Echocardiography for Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Assessment

Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is the most widely used parameter of left ventricular (LV) systolic function, and its deterioration is associated with reduced survival rates.1 LVEF is expressed as a percent value, and calculated by dividing the stroke volume (enddiastolic volume minus end-systolic volume) by the end-diastolic volume and multiplying by 100; however, volume measurements entail a much higher complexity.2 Despite these limitations, noninvasive imaging has become the mainstay for the assessment of LV volumes and ejection fraction