Diagnosis – Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing

A Practical Clinical Approach to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is said to occur when the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) exceeds 25 mmHg at rest or 30 mmHg during exercise. There are many diverse causes of this condition but the term pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is used to describe a rare group of diseases that share histopathological similarities in the small muscularised pulmonary arterioles leading to vascular remodelling known as plexogenic pulmonary arteriopathy (PPA).

Exercise Capacity in Chronic Heart Failure

Heart failure (HF) affects more than 5 million people, representing 2 % of the population.1,2 At 40 years of age, the lifetime risk of developing HF, regardless of gender, is one in five, with an incidence of 10 per 1,000 population after the age of 65 years.1,3 Despite efforts focused toward primary prevention of HF in the areas of hypertension (HTN), diabetes, obesity, use of cardiotoxic chemotherapies, and ischemic coronary artery disease (CAD), there continues to be an increasing incidence.

Symptomatic Calcific Constrictive Pericarditis Presenting Years After Presumed Resolved Inflammatory Heart Disease

Inflammatory heart diseases are characterized as focal, diffuse, or sparse inflammatory processes of the myocardium and its adjacent structures, including pericardium and endocardium.1 Owing to shared etiologies and proximity, myocarditis is often accompanied by pericarditis, known as perimyocarditis or myopericarditis.2 In this article, we present a patient with predominantly right-sided dysfunction from presumed inflammatory heart disease, who became refractory to standard heart failure treatment nine years after initial presentation due to the la