Diagnosis – Exercise Testing

Impact of Exercise Training on Peak Oxygen Uptake and its Determinants in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction

Heart failure (HF) is a major healthcare problem associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality.1 Approximately 6 million Americans aged ≥20 years have HF, and it is the leading cause of hospitalisation among older adults with estimated healthcare costs of US$31 billion annually.1,2 HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) accounts for over 50 % of all HF cases, and unlike HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), pharmacological, or device-based therapy do not improve survival or quality of life in patients with HFpEF.3,4

Cardiac Rehabilitation in Patients with Heart Failure – New Perspectives in Exercise Training

The US Public Health Service defines cardiac rehabilitation services as “comprehensive, long term programs involving medical evaluation, prescribed exercise, cardiac risk factor modification, education and counselling. These programs are designed to limit the physiological and psychological effect of cardiac illness, reduce the risk of sudden death or re-infarction, control cardiac symptoms, stabilise or reverse the atherosclerotic process and enhance the psychological and vocational status of the individual patient.”1

Exercise Capacity in Chronic Heart Failure

Heart failure (HF) affects more than 5 million people, representing 2 % of the population.1,2 At 40 years of age, the lifetime risk of developing HF, regardless of gender, is one in five, with an incidence of 10 per 1,000 population after the age of 65 years.1,3 Despite efforts focused toward primary prevention of HF in the areas of hypertension (HTN), diabetes, obesity, use of cardiotoxic chemotherapies, and ischemic coronary artery disease (CAD), there continues to be an increasing incidence.