Medical Therapies

Metabolic Modulation of Cardiac Metabolism in Heart Failure

Heart failure (HF) affects 1–2 % of the population in developed countries and absorbs a significant amount of human and economic resources.1–3 It is a complex syndrome, characterised by a spectrum of symptoms and signs ranging from minimal loss of normal functional capacity to more severe symptoms refractory to medical therapy. It may be associated with different aetiologies and varying degrees of systolic and/or diastolic cardiac impairment.

Bromocriptine for the Treatment of Peripartum Cardiomyopathy

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a major cause of complications in pregnancies worldwide, and can be largely attributed to increased cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity and hypertensive disorders.1 Today, up to 4 % of all pregnancies are complicated by CVD, with increasing frequency.2 Cardiomyopathies – whether inherited or acquired – represent the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in Western industrialised countries.2

Ambulatory Intra Aortic Balloon Pump in Advanced Heart Failure

Heart failure is a progressive and fatal disease that affects more than 23 million people worldwide, and will affect more than 8 million people in the USA by 2030.1,2 Despite major advancements in medical and device treatments for heart failure in recent decades, the incidence of heart failure continues to rise. This epidemic has a major impact on patient quality of life, while imposing heavy costs on the healthcare system.

Pharmacological Interventions Effective in Improving Exercise Capacity in Heart Failure

Exercise intolerance is a typical symptom of heart failure (HF), impairing patients’ ability to perform activities of daily living and affecting quality of life (QOL).1 Chronic HF is characterised by a progressive reduction in exercise capacity, increasing fatigue and shortness of breath.2 In addition, exercise intolerance is often accompanied by increased blood pressure and chronotropic incompetence.1