Echocardiography / Ultrasound

Imaging of Valvular Heart Disease in Heart Failure

Heart failure (HF) is a rapidly growing public health problem with an estimated prevalence of more than 26 million people worldwide.1 In developed countries the prevalence is 1–2 % peaking at ≥10 % among people aged over 70 years.2 In the US, the lifetime risk of developing HF is 20 % among people aged 40 years or older.3 Diagnosing the underlying cause of HF is central to the choice of appropriate treatment.

Heart Failure in Sub-Saharan Africa

Patients with heart disease in Africa commonly present with heart failure both for admission to hospital1 and in the outpatient setting.2 Recent data suggests that, in line with high income countries, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is also becoming more common.3 Data from the 12 clinical studies performed before 2005 in eight sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries have shown that up to 75 % of cases of heart failure were non-

Interventional Echocardiography: Field of Advanced Imaging to Support Structural Heart Interventions

Cardiovascular medicine has undergone a momentous change over the past 2 decades with the development of percutaneous transcatheter interventions for structural heart disease. This field has the greatest growth in interventional cardiology for the foreseeable future.1–3 The number of patients with acquired valvular heart disease and adult congenital heart disease will only rise in the future as the population expands and ages.

Transradial Approach in Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Lessons from a High-volume Centre

The transradial approach (TRA) was introduced for the first time in 1989.1 Used at first by Campeau for coronary angiography, the TRA was later applied by Kiemeneij et al. for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).2 The radial artery has proven to be a challenging but safe route towards the coronary arteries.