Transoesophageal Echo

Cardiovascular Applications of Ultrasound Contrast Agents

Contrast echocardiography (CE) is 40 years old this year. Gamiak and Shah first described the use of ultrasound (US) contrast in 1968 during the early days of M-mode echocardiography.1 In that study, US contrast was produced by inadvertently introducing air bubbles in the indocyanine green solution that was injected into the left heart during cardiac catheterisation and observing its appearance in the aortic root.

Use of Echocardiography to Optimize Left Ventricular Assist Devices

There are at least five million patients with heart failure (HF) in the US, 5% of whom are considered end-stage.1 Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) in the form of ventricular assist devices (VADs) is becoming an increasingly important option for these patients. Previously reserved for rescuing patients in the throes of refractory cardiogenic shock, MCS is now a mainstay of end-stage heart failure treatment as a bridge to transplant, a bridge to recovery, and a destination therapy (DT).

An Unusual Case of Endocarditis - A Rare Occurrence with Unique Etiology

A 36-year-old woman with a history of complicated cholecystectomy several months previously experienced sudden onset of severe left leg pain and numbness. She was taken to the emergency department, where her pain and numbness subsided over three hours. On examination, she was afebrile with no peripheral stigmata of endocarditis. Cardiac auscultation revealed a new III/VI holosystolic murmur radiating to the axilla. Her left lower extremity was edematous and tender with diminished pulses (1+). A lower-extremity venous duplex was negative for deep venous thrombosis.