Novel Imaging Techniques for Heart Failure

Heart failure (HF) is an epidemic with an increasing prevalence and an absolute mortality rate of approximately 50 % within 5 years of diagnosis. Imaging plays a main role in HF diagnosis, assessment of aetiology and treatment guidance. This article reviews current HF applications for all the available non-invasive imaging modalities: echocardiography, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), nuclear imaging-positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and computed tomography (CT).

Cardiac Amyloid – An Update

Amyloidosis is a condition characterised by accumulation of pathologic fibrillar proteins in organs causing dysfunction.1 Several protein precursors have been shown to cause amyloidosis.2 Cardiac amyloidosis, when waxy, starch-like deposits infiltrate the heart, is most commonly secondary to the accumulation of amyloid fibrils derived from immunoglobulin light chains (AL) or transthyretin (ATTR).

Measuring Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction - Techniques and Potential Pitfalls

Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is one of the most commonly reported measures of left ventricular (LV) systolic function. It is the ratio of blood ejected during systole (stroke volume) to blood in the ventricle at the end of diastole (end-diastolic volume). If the LV end-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) are known, LVEF can be determined using the following equation:
LVEF = stroke volume (EDV - ESV) ÷ EDV

Viability Studies - Comparison of Techniques

More than 20 million people worldwide are estimated to have been diagnosed with congestive heart failure (CHF).1 In the US, more than 5.8 million cases have been reported, with approximately 670,000 new cases each year.2 Heart failure is a diagnosis associated with high morbidity and mortality. CHF can be categorized as either systolic (reduced left ventricular ejection fraction) or diastolic (preserved ejection fraction) heart failure.