Pericardial Effusion

Takotsubo Syndrome – Stress-induced Heart Failure Syndrome

Takotsubo syndrome is an acute reversible heart failure syndrome, which is increasingly recognised by coronary angiography for patients with acute ‘cardiac’ chest pain.1 It is a distinct disease entity from acute coronary syndrome, although the initial presentation has similar features to either ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI).

Progression of Low-pressure to Acute Classic Cardiac Tamponade - A Diagnostic Dilemma in the Setting of Spontaneous Left Ventricular Rupture

Cardiac tamponade (CT) is a pathophysiologic continuum where hemodynamic embarrassment occurs as a result of progressive, decreased venous return that impairs diastolic ventricular filling, which in turn, when uncorrected, severely compromises cardiac output.1,2 The overall risk for death depends on the speed of diagnosis, treatment, volume, and rate of fluid accumulation as well as the underlying pathologic process.1 While CT is classically associated with high intrapericardial pressures owing to rapidly accumulating large pericardial effusions, lo