Atrial Arrhythmias in Pulmonary Hypertension: Pathogenesis, Prognosis and Management

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a chronic condition that is characterised by elevated pulmonary vascular pressures and can be caused by several disease processes (see Table 1).1 Regardless of the aetiology, PH is a progressive disease with a clinical course characterised by frequent decompensations in advanced stages and often a poor prognosis despite the development of novel therapeutic agents.2 AF and atrial flutter are common in PH popul

Hypertension and Frailty Syndrome in Old Age: Current Perspectives

Hypertension is considered the most common disorder in the general population. It is both a health and a financial problem worldwide. The Writing Group of the American Society of Hypertension defines hypertension as a cardiovascular syndrome resulting from a number of interconnected factors.1 Therefore, a comprehensive evaluation is required, involving both the cardiovascular system and other risk factors.

Practical Applications for Single Pill Combinations in the Cardiovascular Continuum

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and it is predicted that its incidence will increase markedly, particularly in developed countries, despite the introduction of new drugs and devices. One of the factors accounting for the limited effectiveness of pharmacological therapy is poor adherence to treatment, particularly in elderly patients. The use of combinations of multiple agents in a single pill formulation could be of value in improving adherence to treatment and disease control, as well as conferring other favourable actions.

Noise Pollution and Arterial Hypertension

The health burden of environmental noise has recently been quantified in a report of the World Health Organization (WHO) in terms of disabilityadjusted life years (DALYs; i.e., the number of years lost because of disability or death – a measure that combines both morbidity and mortality). The WHO estimates that – in western Europeans – each year 45,000 DALYs are lost because of noise-induced cognitive impairment in children, 903,000 because of noise-induced sleep disturbance, 61,000 because of noise-induced cardiovascular disease, and 22,000 because of tinnitus.

Clinical Diagnosis and Management of Resistant Hypertension

Recent guidelines have defined resistant hypertension (RHT) as blood pressure (BP) that does not fall below 140/90 mmHg, despite a therapeutic strategy that includes appropriate lifestyle measures, plus a diuretic and two other antihypertensive drugs belonging to different classes at adequate doses.1 The definition of RHT has been quite arbitrary, a fact reflected on various definitions of ideal drug dosing (e.g.