Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

Treatment Selection in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors versus Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulator

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and life-threatening disease characterised by progressive vascular remodelling that leads to increased pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricular heart failure and death.

Atrial Arrhythmias in Pulmonary Hypertension: Pathogenesis, Prognosis and Management

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a chronic condition that is characterised by elevated pulmonary vascular pressures and can be caused by several disease processes (see Table 1).1 Regardless of the aetiology, PH is a progressive disease with a clinical course characterised by frequent decompensations in advanced stages and often a poor prognosis despite the development of novel therapeutic agents.2 AF and atrial flutter are common in PH popul

The Impact of an Atrial Septal Defect on Hemodynamics in Patients With Heart Failure

Pulmonary venous hypertension and congestion that occurs with left ventricular (LV) failure is generally not seen in the presence of a large atrial septal defect (ASD). As long as right ventricular (RV) function and distensibility are not impaired, the ASD provides an alternate pathway for atrial emptying, thus preventing or attenuating elevated LV filling pressures.

Direct Oral Anticoagulants: A Quick Guide

For more than 50 years, oral vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) were the choice of anticoagulant for the long-term treatment and prevention of arterial and venous thromboembolic events (VTE). VKA treatment is safe and effective, if a high time in therapeutic range is achieved. However, achieving a stable, therapeutic international normalised ratio can prove challenging in the context of drug and food interactions and liver disease, resulting in either an increased risk of thromboembolism due to undertreatment or bleeding due to overtreatment.